Innovation America Innovation America Accelerating the growth of the GLOBAL entrepreneurial innovation economy
Founded by Rich Bendis

Business enterprise expenditures on R&D (BERD) covers R&D activities carried out in the business sector by performing firms and institutes, regardless of the origin of funding. The business enterprise sector includes all firms, organisations and institutions whose primary activity is the production of goods and services for sale to the general public at an economically significant price, as well as the private and non-profit institutes mainly serving them.

BERD data by firm size class are aggregated using the size groups: fewer than 50, 50 to 249, and >250 employees.
Innovation is defined as the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service) or process, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations.

In analysing these four types of innovation (product, process, marketing and organisational), three levels of novelty can be distinguished: new to the firm, new to the market and new to the world. While new to the firm covers the diffusion of an existing innovation to a firm, the other concepts cover innovations newly developed by firms.

SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) were identified as firms with 10-249 employees (10-99 for New-Zealand); correspondingly large firms were >250 employees (>100 for New Zealand).

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